1982. Venus has sometimes been called Earth’s twin. During this program we find the surface temperature is at least 424 degrees Celcius with an atmospheric pressure about 90 times that on Earth. This episode, developed for grades 7 to adult, documents the early Pioneer missions to Venus in the late 1970s through a series of animation, NASA photographs, and interviews with project scientists. The program highlights some early discoveries about the planet's atmosphere and surface features.

Film Duration: 00:27