How the Ottoman Empire became a major force on the German side, tying up Entente troops across the Middle East and forcing the British into a humiliating defeat at Kut, south of Baghdad. Many Turks saw the war as an opportunity to win back lost lands and hoped it would be the first step toward establishing a new empire. Also examined is the impact of the call for a jihad against the Allies, issued from a Constantinople mosque in November 1914.